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The Worship of Jesus


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#1 Evangelion

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Posted 29 December 2002 - 10:13 AM

One of the most common Trinitarian arguments for the deity of Christ is predicated on the use of the English word "worship" in the KJV.

Standard proof texts include:

  • Matthew 2

  • Hebrews 1

  • Matthew 14

  • Matthew 28

  • Luke 24

I shall address Revelation 4 separately, because it is more complicated than these passages, and therefore deserves special attention.

The lowest common denominator among all of these proof texts, is their consistent use of the Greek word proskuneo. This is significant because proskuneo is the only Greek word translated "worshipped" which is ever applied directly to Christ. Yet it is also applied to other men, and it does not necessarily denote worship of a deity.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#2 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:11 AM

Proskuneo implies reverence (as to a king or ruler) but never worship of a god.

Some modern translations make this clear; the NRSV (for example) says that the wise men came to "pay homage" to Christ at Bethlehem. This gives a far more accurate rendition of proskuneo than the KJV, which merely says "worship." Of course, "homage" is something that you pay to a king. And Jesus was indeed born King of the Jews. But he was not God, and the wise men never expected him to be.

Both God and Christ receive proskuneo, but this does not make Jesus God. Why? Because Koine Greek has a word which is used exclusively for the worship of gods (latreuo), and it is never applied to Christ. It is, however, applied to the Father. If you read Mark 11, you will see that Jesus was welcomed into Jerusalem as a king, and you can be sure that he received proskuneo at this time.

It is interesting, however, that he was not welcomed into Jerusalem as God, which is what we'd need to see if Trinitarians were correct. Additionally, the Pharisees and Sadducees make no comment about the reception of Jesus by the people at this time, except to say that they are wrong to consider him the king of the Jews. Not one person is criticised for worshipping him as God - because this never happened!

In the OT, angels are often “worshipped” by the men and women to whom they appear. This fact is oft forgotten by Trinitarians. But the "worship" that angels receive at this time, is obeisance - not literal religious worship. Some angels reject this, because (from the context) they do not wish to be confused with God Himself. However, others accept it, on those occasions when they are representing God.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#3 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:14 AM

Here's an Old Testament example of an angel accepting the worshipful prostration of a man (for which the LXX uses the word proskuneo):

Joshua 5:14-15.
And he said, Nay; but as captain of the host of the LORD am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my Lord unto his servant?
And the captain of the LORD's host said unto Joshua, Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy. And Joshua did so.

How can Joshua perform proskuneo towards an angel without being accused of blasphemy? The answer is simple - it is because proskuneo simply means "to prostrate; to bow down; to pay obeisance or homage." It does not mean "worship", as we understand the word.

In response to this interpretation of Joshua 5, most Trinitarians will attempt to claim that the "captain of Yahweh's host" is the preincarnate Christ, which is why he is able to "accept worship" on this occasion. But this argument is a classic example of circular reasoning, for its proponent merely assumes that Christ is God, and then attempts to superimpose this idea back onto his original argument from proskuneo.

If the Trinitarian wishes to refute the Unitarian interpretation, he must first prove his theory that proskuneo = religious worship, and then elaborate on his argument from Joshua 5.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#4 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:17 AM

Another word translated for "worship" in the NT is doxa - though in most cases it is translated "glory", being used in reference to God, king Solomon, and those who receive praise at feasts (hence Luke 14:10.) It contains no inherent religious implication, but (as with proskuneo) can be used within a previously-established religious context.

Interestingly, the NRSV is more accurate that most other translations, rendering proskuneo as "homage." We would expect "homage" to be shown to a king (as indeed it is, by the magi who come to the stable in Bethlehem, for the purpose of seeing the "king of the Jews") but the word itself, does not suggest a religious act. (Trinitarians require more than just "homage" in order to prove the deity of Christ.)

But there are other passages where the NRSV is helpful, too. Let's compare the KJV with the NRSV.

First, the KJV:

Matthew 8:2.
And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.

Trinitarians like this rendering, because it says "worshipped." However, the actual word translated as "worshipped" in this verse, is proskuneo - a word which (as we have already seen) may be used in an act of worship, but does not actually imply worship itself.

Now let's read the NRSV rendition of the same verse:

Matthew 8:2.
And there was a leper who came to him and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, if you choose, you can make me clean."

The difference between the two translations is striking. By simply rendering the Greek more accurately (i.e., in a way that presents us with the literal sense of the original word) we totally decimate the Trinitarian claim. This becomes even more obvious when we consult standard authorities.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#5 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:18 AM

Vine’s Expository Dictionary defines proskuneo thus:


to make obeisance, do reverence to.


It also says:


It is used as an act of homage or reverence.


Zondervan’s Analytical Greek Lexicon defines proskuneo thus:


To do reverence or homage by kissing the hand; in N.T. to do reverence or homage by prostration; to pay divine homage, worship, adore; to bow one’s self in adoration.


The mere use of the word makes no implication as to the perceived humanity or divinity of the recipient. This is clearly seen from the use of proskuneo in Matthew 18:26 (the parable of the two debtors) where it is applied to the debtor pleading for mercy from his human lord:

Matthew 18:25-26.
But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made.
The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.

Proskuneo is the word which has been translated here as “worshipped” in the KJV, but less archaically translated “begged” in the NIV, “imploring” in the RSV, “prostrated himself” in the NASB and “fell prostrate” in the NEB. The servant clearly was not intending to imply any divinity in his creditor.

In reference to this distinction, Vine quotes in the note of the American Committee in the Revised Version:

At the word ‘worship’ in Matt 2:2 etc, add the marginal note ‘The Greek word denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to man (see chap 18:26) or to God (see chap 4:10).

We also see that the man who comes to a banquet, "has worship" from those around him:

Luke 14:9-11.
And he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room.
But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee,
Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.
For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

Christ says that the enemies of the members of the church of Philadelphia will be forced to worship at the feet of the Philadelphian Christians:

Revelation 3:8-10.
I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.
Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.
Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

In this passage, which is obviously not talking about the worship of God, the NIV and the NEB translate the phrase as “come and fall down at your feet” while the RSV and NASB both say, “come and bow down at your feet."

So we see that where the object of proskuneo is human, the modern translations have been unanimous in changing to a more modern English wording instead of “worship.” King Herod accepted proskuneo, and was struck dead by God. But in Herod's case, he was clearly and unambiguously worshipped as a god, and he accepted such worship as his due.

This was nothing short of blasphemy, and God rightly punished him. Jesus, however, neither receives nor accepts this form of worship.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#6 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:21 AM

When we bow to God, we bow with the idea of worshipping Him in a religious fashion. But this was never offered to Jesus. Let's look at the definition of proskuneo (which was offered to both God and Jesus), as defined by Thayer's Greek Lexicon:

1) To kiss the hand to (towards) one, in token of reverence.

2) Among the Orientals, especially the Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence.

3) In the NT by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order to express respect or to make supplication.
3a) Used of homage shown to men and beings of superior rank.
3a1) To the Jewish high priests.
3a2) To God.
3a3) To Christ.
3a4) To heavenly beings.
3a5) To demons.


In the LXX, this word is used when someone bows or prostrates to the ground, on knees or face, in deep respect for another. Examples of this can be seen in I Samuel (I Kings LXX) 24:9, in which David bowed with his face to the ground and did obeisance (prosekunesen) to king Saul.

Again, in the case of Abigail, "she hasted and alighted from her :gagged:; and she fell before David on her face, and did obeisance to him (prosekunesen), bowing to the ground." (I Samuel 25:23, LXX.) It would seem clear that in these two cases proskuneo is not "worship" in the modern sense of the word, but rather a deep respect common in the Eastern world, and unknown in the Western.

In the NT, proskuneo is used in this manner above, that is a bowing or kneeling in deep respect. This can be seen in:

Matthew 18:26.
Therefore the slave fell down and began to proskuneo himself to (his master)...

As Thayer's Greek Lexicon told us, proskuneo is also shown to Jewish high priests, heavenly beings (such as angels) and demons. It cannot therefore mean that Jesus is God simply because he accepts proskuneo.

Now let's see how Thayer defines the Greek word latreuo - the word which is never used of Christ:

1) To serve for hire.

2) To serve, minister to, either to the gods or men and used alike of slaves and freemen.
2a) In the NT, to render religious service or homage, to worship.
2b) to perform sacred services, to offer gifts, to worship God in the observance of the rites instituted for his worship.
2b1) Of priests, to officiate, to discharge the sacred office.


You can see that although Thayer acknowledges that the word was used in Greek society in reference to the service of exalted men, in the NT it is used only for religious service or homage. This makes it very different to proskuneo, which does not contain a religious connotation. (which is why I keep emphasising the distinction.)

Since proskuneo is not an act of religious worship per se, its purpose is defined by the intent of the one who is offering it and its significance is defined by the response of the recipient.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#7 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:23 AM

The NT is careful to ascribe unambiguously religious worship to God, but never to Christ. Nowhere does Jesus ever encourage true worship of himself. Indeed, in the temptation account, Jesus uses proskuneo in combination with latreuo regarding the Lord God only. Matthew 4:10 is translated by the Amplified Version in the following way:

Then Jesus said to him, 'Begone, Satan! For it has been written, You shall worship [proskuneo], the Lord your God, and Him alone shall you serve' [latreuo.]

The New English Bible says:

But Jesus said, 'Begone, Satan: Scripture says, You shall do homage [proskuneo] to the Lord your God, and worship [latreuo.] him alone.'

Trinitarians must explain why Jesus never receives this form of worship - neither when he was on Earth, nor after his resurrection.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#8 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:24 AM

Let us now turn our attention to Revelation 4 & 5.

I shall use Young's Literal Translation, for clarity:

Revelation 4:1-11.
After these things I saw, and lo, a door opened in the heaven, and the first voice that I heard is as of a trumpet speaking with me, saying, ‘Come up hither, and I will shew thee what it behoveth to come to pass after these things;’
and immediately I was in the Spirit, and lo, a throne was set in the heaven, and upon the throne is one sitting,
and He who is sitting was in sight like a stone, jasper and sardine: and a rainbow was round the throne in sight like an emerald.

And around the throne are thrones twenty and four, and upon the thrones I saw the twenty and four elders sitting, clothed in white garments, and they had upon their heads crowns of gold;
and out of the throne proceed do lightnings, and thunders, and voices; and seven lamps of fire are burning before the throne, which are the Seven Spirits of God,
and before the throne is a sea of glass like to crystal, and in the midst of the throne, and round the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes before and behind;
and the first living creature is like a lion, and the second living creature is like a calf, and the third living creature hath the face as a man, and the fourth living creature is like an eagle flying.

And the four living creatures, each by itself severally, had six wings, around and within are full of eyes, and rest they have not day and night, saying, ‘Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is coming;’
and when the living creatures do give glory, and honour, and thanks, to Him who is sitting upon the throne, who is living to the ages of the ages,
fall down
do the twenty and four elders before Him who is sitting upon the throne, and bow before Him who is living to the ages of the ages, and they cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
‘Worthy art Thou, O Lord, to receive the glory, and the honour, and the power, because Thou—Thou didst create the all things, and because of Thy will are they, and they were created.’

Who is this? If we say that it is the Father, how can we be sure? If we say that it is Christ, how can we be sure?

Let us look for a parallel passage:

Isaiah 6:1-5.
In the year of the death of king Uzziah—I see the Lord, sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and His train is filling the temple.
Seraphs are standing above it: six wings hath each one; with two each covereth its face, and with two each covereth its feet, and with two each flieth.
And this one hath called unto that, and hath said: ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, is Jehovah of Hosts, The fulness of all the earth is His glory.’
And the posts of the thresholds are moved by the voice of him who is calling, and the house is full of smoke.
And I say, ‘Woe to me, for I have been silent, For a man—unclean of lips am I, And in midst of a people unclean of lips I am dwelling, Because the King, Jehovah of Hosts, have my eyes seen.’

Now let's place the two doxologies side by side:

  • Revelation 4:
    ‘Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is coming;’

  • Isaiah 6:
    ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, is Jehovah of Hosts, The fulness of all the earth is His glory.’

It is clear that the individual here referred to is the Father, not the Son. These two doxologies are unique to the Father. They are never used in reference to the Son.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#9 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:25 AM

Now let's examine Revelation 5:

Revelation 5:1-14.
And I saw upon the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne a scroll, written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals;
and I saw a strong messenger crying with a great voice, ‘Who is worthy to open the scroll and to loose the seals of it?’
and no one was able in the heaven, nor upon the earth, nor under the earth, to open the scroll, nor to behold it.

And I was weeping much, because no one was found worthy to open and to read the scroll, nor to behold it,
and one of the elders saith to me, ‘Weep not; lo, overcome did the Lion, who is of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, to open the scroll, and to loose the seven seals of it;
and I saw, and lo, in the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb hath stood as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the Seven Spirits of God, which are sent to all the earth,
and he came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne.

And when he took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb, having each one harps and golden vials full of perfumes, which are the prayers of the saints,
and they sing a new song, saying, ‘Worthy art thou to take the scroll, and to open the seals of it, because thou wast slain, and didst redeem us to God in thy blood, out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,
and didst make us to our God kings and priests, and we shall reign upon the earth.’


And I saw, and I heard the voice of many messengers round the throne, and the living creatures, and the elders—and the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands—
saying with a great voice, ‘Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive the power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing!’
and every creature that is in the heaven, and in the earth, and under the earth, and the things that are upon the sea, and the all things in them, heard I saying, ‘To Him who is sitting upon the throne, and to the Lamb, is the blessing, and the honour, and the glory, and the might—to the ages of the ages!’
and the four living creatures said, ‘Amen!’ and the twenty-four elders fell down and they bow before Him who is living to the ages of the ages.

The one who "sits upon the throne" is clearly the Father, not the Son - while the Lamb is the Son, not the Father.

You will notice that in Revelation 4, the elders "fall down and bow" to the Father. The Greek word in question is proskuneo, which simply means "to prostrate or bow", as we have already seen. This is reverence (not religious worship), and it is the same word which occurs in Revelation 5. Notice also that latreuo (the Greek word for religious worship) is not used in either of these chapters. There is nothing to indicate that the Son himself is Almighty God.

But who is the recipient of proskuneo in verse 14 of Revelation 5? The Father or the Son? Once again, our answer can be found in the text itself.

Let's go back to the previous chapter, and compare Scripture with Scripture.


...to Him who is sitting upon the throne, who is living to the ages of the ages,
fall down do the twenty and four elders before Him who is sitting upon the throne, and bow before Him who is living to the ages of the ages...


It is the Father, not the Son. We can be sure of this, because the Son comes to the Father in the form of a lamb, and takes the book from His hand. It is the Father Who "is living to the ages of the ages." The Son is necessarily subordinate to Him.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#10 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:27 AM

I shall close with the 21 occurrences of latreuo in the New Testament, thereby demonstrating the consistency of Scripture:

  • Matthew 4:10.
    Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship [proskuneo] the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. [latreuo]

  • Luke 1:74.
    That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve [latreuo] him without fear

  • Luke 2:37.
    And she [was] a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served [latreuo] with fastings and prayers night and day.

  • Luke 4:8.
    And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship [proskuneo] the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. [latreuo]

  • Acts 7:7.
    And the nation to whom they shall be in bondage will I judge, said God: and after that shall they come forth, and serve [latreuo] me in this place.

  • Acts 7:42.
    Then God turned, and gave them up to worship [latreuo] the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices forty years in the wilderness?

  • Acts 24:14.
    But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship [latreuo] I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets:

  • Acts 26:7.
    Unto which our twelve tribes, instantly serving [latreuo] day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews.

  • Acts 27:23.
    For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and whom I serve [latreuo]

  • Romans 1:9.
    For God is my witness, whom I serve [latreuo] with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;

  • Romans 1:25.
    Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served [latreuo] the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

  • Philippians 3:3.
    For we are the circumcision, which worship [latreuo] God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.

  • II Timothy 1:3.
    I thank God, whom I serve [latreuo] from [my] forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day

  • Hebrews 8:5.
    Who serve [latreuo] unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, [that] thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.

  • Hebrews 9:9.
    Which [was] a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service [latreuo] perfect, as pertaining to the conscience

  • Hebrews 9:14.
    How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve [latreuo] the living God?

  • Hebrews 10:2.
    For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers [latreuo] once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.

  • Hebrews 12:28.
    Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve [latreuo] God acceptably with reverence and godly fear

  • Hebrews 13:10.
    We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve [latreuo] the tabernacle.

  • Revelation 7:15.
    Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve [latreuo] him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them.

  • Revelation 22:3.
    And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve [latreuo] him

Notice that the final reference to religious worship is applied to one person only (hence the word "him.") If the Father and the Son were equally worthy of this worship, then the sentence should read "...shall serve them." But it does not. The religious worship mentioned here is reserved exclusively for a single person, and the consistency of Scripture demands that this person is the Father, not the Son.

There is not one single passage in which the Son is worshipped as God, but there are many passages in which the Father is worshipped as God, and some of these passages contrast the worship of the Father against the subordinate position of the Son. Not once are we required to worship Jesus as God, and on one occasion, men are condemned for worshipping created beings (such as animals; Romans 1:25.)

The popular Trinitarian argument...

Jesus must be God because (a) we are forbidden to worship created beings, and yet (b) he accepted worship.

...finds absolutely no support from Scripture.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#11 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:29 AM

Addendum: a summary of the various words and concepts related to “worship” in Scripture, courtesy of Brother John MacDougall:


Types of Worship

1) Bowing down in submission: Proskuneo, Shachah, Segad

2) Religious Service: Latruo trans worship or serve also latria (service)
Hebr: Abad, abodah
note connection to “memorial service”

3) Glory, Praise, Honor: Doxa (trans worship only once)
Also: Splendor, brightness, magnificence, excellence, majesty,

4) Reverence, awe, fear, respect Sebazomai, venerate, adore
sebasma, the object of worship
sebomai: devout religious worship
eusebeo: respect, piety (yare (H3372) ?

5) Ceremonial or ritual worship: Proskuneo, Shachah
(This is bowing in submission).

6) Healing: Therapuo G2323
Lawful to heal on the Sabbath day


'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#12 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:29 AM


Greek and Hebrew source words for “worship”

The Greek words translated as “worship” are:

· Proskuneo, tr worship (59), beseech (1), fall down before (1)
· Doxa (usually translated glory), worship (1)
· Usebeo (used only 2 times, once of idols and once of piety at home)
· Theosebees (“worshipper of God”, used only once, by man born blind of those who are heard of God, in context with statement of Jesus as a Man of God)
· Therapuo (tr worship only once, probably not a good translation, usually tr heal or cure)
· Threeskia (tr worship 1, and religion 3)
· Latruo (tr worship 4 and serve 17) Used by Jesus of God: “Him only shalt thou serve. Never used in respect to Jesus.
· Sebazomai, Sebasma, Sebomai (13 instances total - always used of God)

Latruo (“serve”), is frequently used to express the idea of giving reverence to Yahweh, and seems to describe that more exclusive concept. The true worship of God is not merely a passive bowing down, it is active service.


'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#13 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:30 AM


The Hebrew words translated as “worship” are:

Shachah: To bow down (51), stoop (1), crouch (1), do obeisance (5), do reverence (5), fall down (4), beseech (1), worship (99)
Segad: To bow down, do obeisance, worship (12)
Atsab: To make an idol, grieve, worship only 1 time
Abad: To do, serve, “worshippers”(5)


'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#14 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:30 AM


Other Greek words used for bowing or falling down

The same concept of bowing, expressed by Proskuneo, is also expressed by several other Greek words.

Erotao G2065 request, beseech, intreat, pray
Deomai G 1189 beg, beseech, pray to make request
Gonupeteo G 1120 bow the knee, kneel
Kampto G2578 to bend, used with knee to indicate obeisance
Pipto G4098 fall down
Prospipto G 4363 prostrate in supplication or homage

(examples):

Mark 1:40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching (parakaleo) him, and kneeling (gonupeteo) down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.

Mark 5:22 Jairus by name; and when he saw him, he fell (pipto) at his feet, 23And besought (parakaleo) him greatly

Luke 8:41 same as Mark 5:22

Mark 7:25 and came and fell (prospipto) at his feet: 26The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought (erotao) him

Luke 8:28 When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell (prospipto) down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech (deomai) thee, torment me not.

Matt 27:29 And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed (gonupeteo) the knee before him,

Mark 6:51 amazed, wondered.

Matt 17:6 And when the disciples heard it, they fell (pipto) on their face, and were sore afraid

Philippians 2:9-11 Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: 10That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; 11And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.


'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#15 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:31 AM


Other Words Which Express Concepts Of Worship

Service (ceremonial)
Leitourgia (Greek - Strongs G 3009) The service or ministry of the priests relative to the prayers and sacrifices offered to God.
Abodah (Hebrew - Strongs H5656) Service of God. Service of Levite singers and doorkeepers. Closest Hebrew equivalent to the modern meaning of the English word “worship”

Minister (ministerial service)
Sharath (Strongs H8334) to attend as a menial or worshipper: fig. To contribute to; minister unto, serve. Similar or synonym to Abad

Reverence, Awe, Fear
Sebas - Greek Root meaning awe or fear

This root is not used by itself, but combined to make a number of words that express aspects of divine or religious reverence or piety, including:

Sebomai - see above
Sebazomai - see above
Sebasma - see above
Theosebees - see above
Usebees (or Eusebees) G2152 - devout
Eusebeo G2151 - piety
Eusebos G2153 - godly, piously
Eusebeia - piety towards God, right worship, often translated “godliness”
asebeia - ungodliness

Notice that although many of these words are translated as “godly,” “godliness,” “ungodliness” etc, they actually have no root for “god” in them at all, but rather a root for piety or reverence. Paul uses these words numerous times (eleven) in his epistles to Timothy.

"Sebas, or Sebeia, in all its cognate forms, indicates awe in the presence of God, reverence in the presence of that which is majestic or divine, the feeling of awe or reverence, and the obedience which that should evoke. A life of active obedience. A worship which befits that awe. True religion. Proper worship." (from Barclay: New Testament Words)

Phobeo: Greek - (Strongs G5399) To fear, to be in awe of, to reverence
Yar-e’ Hebrew - (Strongs H3372): fear, dread reverence.
Of all of these, only Proskuneo (bowing down) is ever used of Jesus).


See attached for Bro. John MacDougall's detailed study of worship, with particular reference to the Greek words used in relation to Christ.
'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#16 Evangelion

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 07:44 AM

Addendum: supplementary notes, courtesy of "echad", a member of this forum:


The Greek words "sebazomai" (4573) "sebasma" (4574) "sebomai" (4576) also carry a "religious" connotation, but are never used in application to Christ.

SEBAZOMAI (4573) "To honor RELIGIOUSLY, to worship"
SEBASMA (4574) "Whatever is RELIGIOUSLY honored, object of worship"
SEBOMAI (4576) "To revere, worship" (Also translated in one instance as "religious" - Acts.13:43)

Here may be a significant usage of one of the forms -

"Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped(sebasma)
..." (2Thess.2:4)

The "man of sin/son of perdition" will exalt himself over all that is called "God", or that is worshipped" - ALL that is called God, or all that (by logical inference) is worshipped AS God, would INCLUDE the "only true God". And the word used for worshipped here, (sebasma) is defined as a "religious" form of worship, and is never used in application to Jesus.

Here are all the of the appearances of the root word I can find -

"But in vain do they worship me (God)..." Mt.15:9 (also Mk.7:7)
"Saying, this fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law" (Acts.18:13)
"A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, which worshipped God..." Acts.16:14)
"...Justus, one that worshipped God..." (Acts.18:7)
"Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen." (Ro.1:25)
"So that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at naught: but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised. and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth" (Acts.19:27)

All these applications seem to have a definite religious connotation, whether in application to a false God or the true God.


'Abba Antony said, "A time is coming when men will go mad, and when they see someone who is not mad, they will attack him saying, 'You are mad, you are not like us.'"'

Ward, Benedicta. The Sayings of the Desert Fathers (2006), Antony 25, p. 5.

Credo.

#17 Lectron

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 04:32 PM

This is an extremely useful thread Ev - Thank you




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